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an essential tool in a Chinese exorcism ceremony is the
Fangxiangshi is an essential tool in Chinese exorcism ceremony.
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Asked 2/21/2023 1:47:52 PM
Updated 2/21/2023 2:44:46 PM
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Fangxiangshi is an essential tool in Chinese exorcism ceremony.
Added 2/21/2023 2:01:36 PM
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The fangxiangshi (Chinese: ) was a Chinese ritual exorcist, the meaning of whose name is obscure but has been translated as "one who sees in all (four) directions", "he who scrutinizes for evil in many directions", and "one who orients unwanted spirits in the direction to which they belong". Ancient Chinese texts record that he wore a bearskin with four golden eyes, and carried a lance and shield to expel malevolent spirits. His primary duties were orchestrating the seasonal Nuo ritual to chase out disease-causing demons from houses and buildings, and leading a funeral procession to exorcize corpse-eating wangliang spirits away from a burial chamber. From the Han dynasty through the Tang dynasty (3rd century BCE to 10th century CE), fangxiangshi were official wu-shaman specialists in the imperially sanctioned Chinese state religion; after the Tang, they were adapted into popular folk religion and symbolized by wearing a four-eyed mask.

In the present day, the fangxiangshi is a masked character in Chinese Nuo opera, and continues as the Japanese equivalent h s shi exorcist in Shinto ceremonies.
Added 2/21/2023 2:44:46 PM
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