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please explain the sources of variations in natural poplation
Four sources of variation: 1. Mutation. This is some error in the replication of DNA during cell division. This is a *huge* category as there are many kinds of mutations. [ The most important (from the point of view of evolution) is gene duplication (also called 'gene amplification'). But there are also point mutations, substitutions, deletions, insertions, frameshift errors, translocations, transpositions, inversions, etc. 2. Sexual combination. This refers to the fact that any mating between two individuals produces an offspring with a genome different from *either* of its parents. This
is a *huge* source of variation within a population, as it produces many different *combinations* of traits, each of which can have its own advantages and disadvantages. Thus sexual reproduction can produce far more variation than asexual reproduction, where all variation is dependent on mutations. 3. Recombination and crossing over. This refers to processes during various stages of DNA replication where DNA is broken and then joined to other chromosomes. The most common form of this is crossing-over during meiosis where DNA is exchanged between homologous chromosomes, but there are other processes, such as end-joining between non-homologous chromosomes that can occur. 4. Horizontal gene transfer. This refers to any process that can move DNA between individuals in a method other than inheritance. (Inheritance is sometimes called 'vertical gene transfer'.) For example, viruses can transfer DNA between bacteria, even completely unrelated bacteria. Bacterial conjugation is another way of transfer. This is common in prokaryotes (like bacteria), and may in fact be very important in the early evolution of single-celled organisms (which is why the *base* of the evolutionary tree is much more murky than the evolution of multicellular eukaryotes, like us vertebrates). However, there is some evidence of a small amount of horizontal transfer of some DNA between *species* in evolution. ]
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Expert answered|selymi|Points 8932|
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Asked 9/30/2012 9:25:40 AM
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