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categories of waste and the associated risks
Medical waste can be further divided into the following categories: ! Infectious waste (lab cultures, wastes from isolation wards, tissues, used dressings) ! Pathological waste (body parts, human foetuses, placentas, blood, [ other body fluids) ! Pharmaceutical waste (unwanted drugs, expired drugs) ! Chemical waste (chemicals from diagnostic work, cleaning materials) ! Sharps (needles, blades and broken glass) ! Radioactive waste (radioactive substances from radiotherapy and lab work) ! Pressurised containers (gas cylinders, cartridges and aerosol cans) ! High heavy metal content (batteries,
broken thermometers, blood pressure gauges) In most emergency situations the predominant types of medical waste are infectious waste, pathological waste and sharps. These may be used as categories for segregation, but this will depend on the technologies selected for the final disposal of different waste types (see 8.5). 8.2 Associated risks General, non-clinical, waste poses the same hazards as general solid waste (Chapter 7), but medical or clinical waste poses significantly increased hazards. The most obvious of these is the transmission of infectious diseases (e.g. Hepatitis B and HIV) through direct contact with infected waste items such as used needles, discarded dressings and human tissues or fluids. Waste with high heavy metal content Pressurized Containers Pathological Waste Pharmaceutical Waste Sharps Clinical Waste Radioactive Waste Chemical Waste Infectious Waste Genotoxic Waste HEALTHCARE WASTE Non Clinical Waste 10 - 25% 75 - 90% Figure 8.1. Categories of waste from medical centres WASTE MANAGEMENT AT MEDICAL CENTRES 123 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 8 6 6 6 6 6 9 9 9 9 9 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 Manual Guidelines Guidelines Guidelines Guidelines Guidelines Case Study Case Study Case Study Case Study Case Study Non-direct risks include disease transmission by vectors and pollution of water sources and the environment. ]
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Asked 6/10/2013 12:58:13 PM
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