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How does the environmental problem sanitation impact within South-Africa or globally?
The global statistics on sanitation hide the dire situation in some developing regions. With an average coverage in developing regions of 50%, only one out of two people has access to some sort of improved sanitation facility. [ Human excreta have been implicated in the transmission of many infectious diseases including cholera, typhoid, infectious hepatitis, polio, cryptosporidiosis, and ascariasis. WHO (2004) estimates that about 1.8 million people die annually from diarrhoeal diseases where 90% are children under five, mostly in developing countries. Poor sanitation gives many infections
the ideal opportunity to spread: plenty of waste and excreta for the flies to breed on, and unsafe water to drink, wash with or swim in. Among human parasitic diseases, schistosomiasis (sometimes called bilharziasis) ranks second behind malaria in terms of socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is endemic in 74 developing countries, infecting more than 200 million people. Of these, 20 million suffer severe consequences from the disease. Ascariasis is found worldwide. Infection occurs with greatest frequency in tropical and subtropical regions, and in any areas with inadequate sanitation. Ascariasis is one of the most common human parasitic infections. Up to 10% of the population of the developing world is infected with intestinal worms – a large percentage of which is caused by Ascaris. Worldwide, severe Ascaris infections cause approximately 60,000 deaths per year, mainly in children Trematode infections are caused by parasitic flatworms (also known as flukes) that infect humans and animals. Infected individuals transmit trematode larvae in their faeces. In many areas of Asia where trematode infections are endemic, untreated or partially treated excreta and nightsoil are directly added to ponds, rivers, or lakes. The trematodes complete their lifecycles in intermediate hosts and subsequently infect fish, shellfish, or encyst on aquatic plants. Humans become infected when they consume the fish, shellfish, or plants raw or partially cooked. ]
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Expert answered|jher000|Points 7101|
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Asked 4/24/2012 11:53:53 AM
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