What policies in Italy or Germany,would you recommend to these countries, assuming their desire to achieve a sustainable society? ...
This situation will cause a pressure on society as there will be fewer young people to earn income, [ provide for and care for the greater numbers ...
This situation will cause a pressure on society as there will be fewer young people to earn income, [ provide for and care for the greater numbers of elderly.
I would recommend an increasing retirement age or abolishment of any retirement age to encourage people to work for more years of their life. This should be perfectly reasonable as ageing populations have increasing numbers of individuals remaining healthy and capable well past previous retirement ages.
Encourage full employment and discourage unemployment.
Provide incentives to those caring for elderly relatives. Protect the careers of those carers.
Consider legalising euthanasia for those who wish it. This will reduce the number of people requiring a lot of care whilst reducing pain and suffering to the afflicted (and yes of course I hope if I am ever that unlucky then it would be done to me too). If there are limited numbers of people to care for the elderly and limited funds to pay for thier care and keep, consider the ethics of keeping someone alive unwillingly when you wouldn't wish it upon a dog.
Encourage pension saving - perhaps even make it compulsory, but also remove the obstacles towards pension saving, such as profiteering pension companies.
I would definitely not recommend any policies to increase birth-rate or immigration as these are not sustainable. Increased birth rate is not sustainable for any society as there are limited amounts of land and resources available. Increasing the population in the long term leaves less available to each person. The same applies to immigration and also too much of that destabilises a society. The immigrants will also become elderly and expect care and pensions.
Studies Environmental Science - including modules in population, statistics and sociology. ] Note:
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