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Define sensation and perception. What is the difference between them? Provide an example.
We make contact with the world around us through our five primary senses — sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. [ Psychologists distinguish between sensation and perception. Sensation is the pickup of information by our sensory receptors, for example the eyes, ears, skin, nostrils, and tongue. In vision, sensation occurs as rays of light are collected by the two eyes and focused on the
retina. In hearing, sensation occurs as waves of pulsating air are collected by the outer ear and transmitted through the bones of the middle ear to the cochlear nerve. Perception is the interpretation of what is sensed. The physical events transmitted to the retina may be interpreted as a particular color, pattern, or shape. The physical events picked up by the ear may be interpreted as musical sounds, a human voice, noise, and so forth. Lack of experience may cause a person to misinterpret what he has sensed. In other words, perception represents our apprehension of a present situation in terms of our past experiences, or, as stated by the philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804): "We see things not as they are but as we are." The following situation will illustrate how perception correlates with previous experience: Suppose a person parked his car and walks away from it while continuing to look back at it. As he goes further and further away from his car, it will appear to him as if his car is gradually getting smaller and smaller. In such a situation none of us, however, would gasp in horror and cry out, “My car is shrinking!” Although the sensory perception is that the car is shrinking rapidly, we do not interpret that the car is changing size. Through past experiences we have learned that objects do not grow or shrink as we walk toward or away from them. You have learned that their actual size remains constant, despite the illusion. Even when one is five blocks away from one's car and it seems no larger than one's fingernail, one would interpret it as that it is still one's car and that it hasn't actually changed size. ]
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Asked 3/7/2011 11:41:46 AM
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Identify the five major perspectives in the field of psychology and list one subfield for each.
Weegy: The following are just a few of the major perspectives in modern psychology. The Biological Perspective The study of physiology played a major role in the development of psychology as a separate science. [ Today, this perspective is known as biological psychology. Sometimes referred to as biopsychology or physiological psychology, this perspective emphasizes the physical and biological bases of behavior. The Behavioral Perspective Behavioral psychology is a perspective that focuses on learned behaviors. While behaviorism dominated psychology early in the twentieth century, it began to lose its hold during the 1950s. Today, the behavioral perspective is still concerned with how behaviors are learned and reinforced. Behavioral principles are often applied in mental health settings, where therapists and counselors use these techniques to explain and treat a variety of illnesses.The Cognitive Perspective During the 1960s, a new perspective known as cognitive psychology began to take hold. Known today as the "cognitive revolution," this area of psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision-making. Influenced by psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura, this perspective has grown tremendously in recent decades.The Cross-Cultural Perspective Cross-cultural psychology is a fairly new perspective that has grown significantly in recent years. These psychologists and researchers look at human behavior across different cultures. By looking at these differences, we can learn more about how our culture influences our thinking and behavior.The Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary psychology is focused on the study of how evolution explains physiological processes. Psychologists and researchers take the basic principles of evolution, including natural selection, and apply them to psychological phenomena. This perspective suggests that these mental processes exist because they serve an evolutionary ... (More)
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Asked 2/28/2011 8:34:29 AM
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What is the difference between just thinking, as opposed to thinking critically?
Weegy: Critical thinking is the active, skillful deployment of those general principles and procedures of thinking which are most conducive to truth or accuracy in judgement. To understand critical thinking better, [ consider some of the things that uncritical thinkers do. An uncritical thinker: •accepts things purely on faith •thinks that a person's beliefs are "true for them" and can't be mistaken or criticized •is not disposed to seek evidence or challenge beliefs. By contrast, a critical thinker asks questions like: •What am I being asked to accept? •Should I accept it or not? •Why? What are the arguments and how strong are they? The foundation of critical thinking is understanding how claims are supported or opposed by evidence, i.e., how information is relevant to whether a claim is true or false. Any particular piece of evidence can be cast in the form of a reason for, or objection to, some claim. So at the most basic level, the general principles and procedures you need to be a critical thinker are the ones governing reasoning and argument. A critical thinker can: •identify the main contention in an issue, •look for evidence that supports or opposes that contention, and •assess the strength of the reasoning. Read more: ] (More)
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Asked 2/28/2011 9:45:26 AM
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Weegy: Any motivated person can use these steps to develop as a thinker: 1. Use ?Wasted? Time. 2. A Problem A Day. 3. Internalize Intellectual Standards. 4. Keep An Intellectual Journal. 5. Reshape Your Character. 6. Deal with Your Ego. 7. [ [ Redefine the Way You See Things. 8. Get in touch with your emotions. 9. Analyze group influences on your life. ] (More)
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Asked 3/1/2011 2:33:25 PM
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What is the current job market like for psychology graduates?
Weegy: We used to have ?alumnus? (male singular), ?alumni? (male plural), ?alumna? (female singular) and ?alumnae? (female plural); but the latter two are now popular only among older female graduates, with the first two terms becoming unisex. [ [ However, it is still important to distinguish between one alumnus and a stadium full of alumni. Never say, ?I am an alumni? if you don?t want to cast discredit on your school. Many avoid the whole problem by resorting to the informal abbreviation ?alum.?[ ] ] ] (More)
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Asked 3/1/2011 2:38:08 PM
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What is the current job market like for psychology graduates?
Weegy: Here is a good link providing some answers to that query (More)
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