Describe the evolution of Islamic civiliation. What was its effect on Europe?
It is striking that in the sequence of civilizations the latter builds on the former, and that there is no civilization that starts from scratch.
Therefore, Islamic civilization had the greatest impact on modern European civilization, [ which followed it. The impact of Islamic civilization on Europe covered many fields and dominated several aspects until it spread across all areas of life in
Europe. This impact reached most activities and systems, mainly faith, science, language, literature, legislation, society, politics, and others.
One of the earliest and most important of all pre-Islamic Arab civilizations is the Qahtani Kingdom of Saba or Sheba (10th century BCE – 7th century CE), which had an elaborate civilization, legendary in its reputation of prosperity and wealth. The Kingdom of Saba was located in the southwestern mountainous rainy parts of the Arabian Peninsula in what is known today as the regions of Aseer and Yemen. Envious of its wealth, the Romans named it “Arabia Felix” (fortunate or prosperous Arabia).
The Sabaean capital, Ma'rib, was located near San'a, today's capital of Yemen, which was reportedly founded by Noah's eldest son Shem (or "Sam" in Arabic) from whose name the word "Sami" in Arabic or "Semitic" in English comes. In addition to their domains in the Arabian Penisula, the Sabaean kings controlled for a long time some parts of the East African coast across the Red Sea where they established the Kingdom of Abyssinia, which is Eritrea today. It should be indicated here that the name “Abyssinia” comes from the Arabic word “Habashah”. One of the most famous rulers of the Sabaeans was Queen Balgais. This mystic Arab Queen of Sheba was well known for her beauty, grace, wealth, charm, and splendor. She reportedly had a famous impassioned encounter with the Hebrew King Solomon when she took a special trip to JerusalemThe contact Western students had with Islamic schools in Andalusia and elsewhere played a great role in transferring a set of fiqh and Shar’iah rulings to their all languages. Europe was not adopting a perfect system or fair laws at the time. During the Napoleon era in Egypt, the most famous books of Al-Maliki school of fiqh were translated into French. ]
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