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Q: outline the social model of dementia
A: The medical model characterises dementia by global cognitive impairment, which is associated with deterioration in functioning and, in many people, behavioural and psychiatric disturbances. Although most prevalent in people over 65, [ the condition can develop in younger people. There may be differences in aetiology and other characteristics between these two groups, and it is important to
recognise this because patients may benefit from different approaches (Harvey et al, 2003). There are four main types of dementia: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) accounts for 60% of all cases and is characterised by ‘plaques’ and ‘tangles’ in brain structures that lead to the death of brain cells. It is progressive, affecting more parts of the brain over time; Vascular dementia (VaD) accounts for 15–20% of all cases and is caused by a problem in the supply of blood in the brain; Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) accounts for 15–20% of all cases and is caused by small protein deposits in nerve cells that block chemical messages in the brain; Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) accounts for 5% of all cases and is a progressive degeneration of the frontal lobes of the brain. Many people, especially older people, will present with a ‘mixed dementia’, which is a combination of two or more of the above types. There are other less prevalent types such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), alcohol related-dementia and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD). In some other forms the symptoms can be reversible – this can occur in psychiatric disorders (dementia associated with depression) and endocrine abnormalities (B12 deficiency), but the majority of cases are non-reversible and need complicated and measured care plans. Clinical dementia is different from the normal cognitive decline associated with ageing. Its symptoms are more severe and, as the deficits are more global, there is more functional disability. A significant problem is defining the difference between normal ageing (which may involve some cognitive decline) and a pre-clinical state of dementia. ]
Expert answered|jher000|Points 5379|
Asked 9/30/2011 6:27:49 AM
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