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A Skinner box and a maze are examples of which of the following? A. Habitats B. Stratified samples C. Random samples D. Laboratories
A Skinner box is a device invented around 1930 by behavioral scientist B. F. Skinner of Harvard University. The Skinner box is used in a laboratory setting to study classical conditioning and operant conditioning in animals. [ Skinner and other behaviorists object to the term "Skinner box" and more often call the device an operant conditioning chamber. Behaviorism is a branch of psychology that
has to do with learned behaviors. In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus is joined with an unconditioned stimulus, with the result that a natural unconditioned response becomes associated with the conditioned stimulus, thereby becoming a conditioned response. In the famous example of Pavlov's dog, the dog heard a bell ring just before each meal and eventually came to salivate at the sound of a bell rather than at the appearance of food. In operant conditioning, the subject's behaviors are reinforced by desirable results, punished by undesirable results, or extinguished by having no result. Reinforced behaviors will occur more frequently, while punished and extinguished behaviors will be performed less often. An example of operant conditioning is a rat learning to navigate a maze more quickly and efficiently after a number of attempts. ]
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After the European explorers arrived in the Western Hemisphere, many plants and animals were traded between the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia. This complex relationship between the continents was called the what?
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