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Black urban migration significance to American history
In the U.S., the migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North was prompted by the growing violence and oppression of Jim Crow laws in the post-Reconstruction South and greater job opportunities in North. [ The black migration began in the 1890s as African Americans left for cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia and New York. The single largest
movement of African Americans occurred during World War I, when approximately 500,000 people moved from rural areas and small towns in the South to cities in the North and the Midwest as wartime employment in factories peaked. Even in the North, blacks encountered violence at the hands of whites, who resented competition for jobs and black economic success. Segregation and discrimination in housing, education and jobs was pervasive in the North as well. Nevertheless, from 1916 through the 1960s, more than six million blacks left the South for other regions of the U.S. Related Government: Civil War, Reconstruction and Jim Crow Government: U.S. Control of American Indians Glossary immigration discrimination mulatto race racism Full Glossary In 1879, rumors circulated in African-American communities in the South that Kansas was being set aside for settlement by former slaves. Upwards of 15,000 blacks moved to Kansas; they were called "exodusters" because of their exodus into the dusty Plains state of Kansas. Abolitionist Frederick Douglass published The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass in 1881. That same year Joel Chandler Harris published Uncle Remus, a folktale whose characters depicted racial stereotypes. In 1881, Helen Hunt Jackson chronicled the federal government's treatment of Native Americans in A Century of Dishonor. In 1883, Mark Twain published Life on the Mississippi; a year later, he published The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, both of which were controversial in their use of racial slurs and depiction of black characters. ]
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Asked 4/18/2011 1:12:48 AM
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