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What is the historical role of jails as it applies to corrections?
The Pennsylvania Prison Society was founded in 1787 in Philadelphia with the goals of improving the conditions of prisons and humanizing the treatment of prison inmates. [ Leaders of the society were Quaker clergy who sought to reduce the use of corporal punishment in prisons and jails. They tried to reframe corrections as a religious experience in which convicts could seek expiation for their
sins through Bible reading and contemplation of their misdeeds. The society was successful in promoting the use of "separate and solitary" confinement as a novel penal method to achieve their philosophic objectives (Barnes). Most prisons at the end of the eighteenth century had congregate living situations in which inmates worked in jail-based workshops. Pennsylvania Prison Society members felt that congregate living contributed to prisons becoming "schools for crime" where more criminally sophisticated convicts recruited younger ones for their criminal exploits. The Philadelphia Quakers also believed that solitary contemplation of God could lead to genuine individual reformation. During the early part of the nineteenth century the so-called Philadelphia System of separate and solitary confinement competed with the older congregate system as the dominant penal approach. French philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville traveled to America to study the two approaches and make recommendations on correctional practices to European governments (Beaumont and Tocqueville). ]
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Asked 7/11/2011 5:27:09 PM
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WHAT ARE THE THREE BAIC ARGUMENTS ESTABLISHED IN THE 1800'S THAT SUPPORTED THE SEPARATION OF JUVENILE PRISONERS FROM ADULT PRISONERS? WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THERE WERE NO DISTINCTION BETEEWN PRISONS FOR JUVENILES AND ADULTS?
Weegy: Despite the evidence for pre-modern concerns about juvenile crime, a number of historians have argued that the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century was a pivotal period of change in the treatment of juvenile criminals. [ Accordingly, a traditional approach to the history of crime has argued that during the nineteenth century there was an ‘invention’ of juvenile crime, and that, henceforth, the foundations were laid for the juvenile justice system of the later nineteenth century, and, indeed, for our modern system. The key features to be enshrined in this system were the axiomatic tension between systems of punishment and reformation, the separation of juveniles from adults at all stages of the criminal justice system, and (at least in the nineteenth century) the removal of the child from what were seen as debilitating domestic environments. The story of these developments can be found in many social histories of the period, particularly since they were taking place in parallel with other developments in social policy. According to traditional histories, it was no coincidence that these developments occurred at the same time as changes to the Poor Law system, change in the workplace, relating particularly to women and children, and changes in the policing of society, evidenced by the passing of the Factory Acts, the Metropolitan Police Act, and the New Poor Law in the first half of the century. Models of Delinquency While the development of the state and of social welfare is certainly significant in discussing juvenile crime in this period, a number of other factors need to be considered. Firstly, the extent to which there was not so much an ‘invention’ as a ‘reconceptualisation’ of the juvenile offender. Secondly, the level of detailed insight into the experience of this group within the criminal justice system afforded by the rich material that has survived in nineteenth-century records. Thirdly, to what extent a particular construction, or ... (More)
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