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What is the historical role of jails as it applies to corrections?
The Pennsylvania Prison Society was founded in 1787 in Philadelphia with the goals of improving the conditions of prisons and humanizing the treatment of prison inmates. [ Leaders of the society were Quaker clergy who sought to reduce the use of corporal punishment in prisons and jails. They tried to reframe corrections as a religious experience in which convicts could seek expiation for their
sins through Bible reading and contemplation of their misdeeds. The society was successful in promoting the use of "separate and solitary" confinement as a novel penal method to achieve their philosophic objectives (Barnes). Most prisons at the end of the eighteenth century had congregate living situations in which inmates worked in jail-based workshops. Pennsylvania Prison Society members felt that congregate living contributed to prisons becoming "schools for crime" where more criminally sophisticated convicts recruited younger ones for their criminal exploits. The Philadelphia Quakers also believed that solitary contemplation of God could lead to genuine individual reformation. During the early part of the nineteenth century the so-called Philadelphia System of separate and solitary confinement competed with the older congregate system as the dominant penal approach. French philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville traveled to America to study the two approaches and make recommendations on correctional practices to European governments (Beaumont and Tocqueville). ]
Expert answered|badgerpoe|Points 620|
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Asked 7/11/2011 5:27:09 PM
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WHAT ARE THE THREE BAIC ARGUMENTS ESTABLISHED IN THE 1800'S THAT SUPPORTED THE SEPARATION OF JUVENILE PRISONERS FROM ADULT PRISONERS? WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THERE WERE NO DISTINCTION BETEEWN PRISONS FOR JUVENILES AND ADULTS?
Weegy: Despite the evidence for pre-modern concerns about juvenile crime, a number of historians have argued that the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century was a pivotal period of change in the treatment of juvenile criminals. [ Accordingly, a traditional approach to the history of crime has argued that during the nineteenth century there was an ‘invention’ of juvenile crime, and that, henceforth, the foundations were laid for the juvenile justice system of the later nineteenth century, and, indeed, for our modern system. The key features to be enshrined in this system were the axiomatic tension between systems of punishment and reformation, the separation of juveniles from adults at all stages of the criminal justice system, and (at least in the nineteenth century) the removal of the child from what were seen as debilitating domestic environments. The story of these developments can be found in many social histories of the period, particularly since they were taking place in parallel with other developments in social policy. According to traditional histories, it was no coincidence that these developments occurred at the same time as changes to the Poor Law system, change in the workplace, relating particularly to women and children, and changes in the policing of society, evidenced by the passing of the Factory Acts, the Metropolitan Police Act, and the New Poor Law in the first half of the century. Models of Delinquency While the development of the state and of social welfare is certainly significant in discussing juvenile crime in this period, a number of other factors need to be considered. Firstly, the extent to which there was not so much an ‘invention’ as a ‘reconceptualisation’ of the juvenile offender. Secondly, the level of detailed insight into the experience of this group within the criminal justice system afforded by the rich material that has survived in nineteenth-century records. Thirdly, to what extent a particular construction, or ... (More)
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Expert Answered
Asked 7/5/2011 2:50:37 PM
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WHAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF PRISON LABOR? wHAT CAUSED THE DECLINE OF PRISON LABOR?
Weegy: Prison labor has its roots in slavery. After the 1861-1865 Civil War, a system of "hiring out prisoners" was introduced in order to continue the slavery tradition. [ Freed slaves were charged with not carrying out their sharecropping commitments (cultivating someone else's land in exchange for part of the harvest) or petty thievery - which were almost never proven - and were then "hired out" for cotton picking, working in mines and building railroads. From 1870 until 1910 in the state of Georgia, 88% of hired-out convicts were Black. In Alabama, 93% of "hired-out" miners were Black. In Mississippi, a huge prison farm similar to the old slave plantations replaced the system of hiring out convicts. The notorious Parchman plantation existed until 1972. ] (More)
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Expert Answered
Updated 7/5/2011 6:00:11 PM
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debnjerry please don't mind, I have something to say. The answer you gave is correct and I got that question also but I answered that only with one link. The reason is the answer you took was from a revenue sharing site. I am a long time freelancer and webmaster. I am a Google adsense affiliate also. We people earn money from our contents. PR is very important for us as is the uniqueness of the content. When these contents are copied we badly suffer as Google algorithm tends to penalize plagiarized contents. We could end up with our affiliation being canceled. So, what do we do when our content is plagiarized? We file a DMCA as a legal action and send it to the website that is in this case Weegy. What will weegy do then? They are bound to take off the answer. But until that the writer will face some great trouble with search ranking and traffic. Copyscape, Google alert, Hubdefender are some paid/free tool we use to find out these plagiarism. If you take anything from a free source like Wikipedia or yahoo answers that's a whole different story. I also take things from others article sometimes but it's not good and most times I take as less as I can so that, that don't harm the author. There are strict law on copyright also. I told all these as I think you might not know about the fact. As a freelance publisher I feel myself hurt when I see a fellow publisher hurt. Many a expert make this mistake as they don't know the rule. Weegy should create a blog about it.
Added 7/5/2011 5:38:56 PM
Well, I posted to link to cite the source. Most of the answers I have read on Weegy are cut and paste, but the majority of experts do not even cite a source. I always cite where the information came from so the reader can read for further information. This is the same thing I see on ChaCha too. I believe the biggest problem is copying without citing a source. If you do a search on the majority of answers here you will see they are taken from a website, and most of the time they are not cited at all.
Added 7/5/2011 5:42:25 PM
Yes, I know. I myself have also done that without citing. But citing also don't help the actual author. Google is very arrogant.
Added 7/5/2011 6:00:11 PM
how would you react if a coworker and another coworker is argueing.
Weegy: You don't need do react. (More)
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Expert Answered
Asked 7/5/2011 7:33:03 PM
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If one (1) book costs $6.48, how much do three (3) books cost without tax?
Weegy: Without tax, 3 books, each priced at $6.48, costs $19.44. (More)
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Updated 193 days ago|4/10/2014 12:19:13 PM
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