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What are the functions, benefits, deficiency risks, and toxicity risks of water-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin Health Benefit Deficiency Toxicity Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin B-1 (thiamin) Vital for healthy nervous system and nerve transmission Essential in converting glucose to energy Disease is beriberi Symptoms of a deficiency include [ depression, irritability, attention deficit Severe deficiency leads to edema, paralysis, and heart failure No toxicity has been reported by those
taking large doses over prolonged periods of time Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) Essential for metabolizing carbohydrates, fats, and lipids and for the degradation of fatty acids and the synthesis of ATP Acts as an intermediary in the transfer of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions Necessary for the function of vitamins B-6, folic acid, and niacin Involved in formation of red blood cells and maintenance of body tissues, particularly the skin and eyes Symptoms are dry, scaly skin on face, oral swelling, and cracking at the corners of the mouth No evidence that high doses have toxic effects Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) Necessary for immune system function, hormone modulation, gluconeogenesis Essential in making certain amino acids and turning others into hormones Involved in metabolizing polyunsaturated fats and proteins Used to build red blood cells and maintain nerve tissue Formation of niacin Not common; symptoms include mouth sores, nausea, nervousness, anemia, convulsions High doses over prolonged periods are very toxic and can cause temporary or permanent nerve damage Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) Works with folic acid to produce red blood cells Helps build and maintain protective nerve sheaths Needed for RNA and DNA synthesis Pernicious anemia, muscle and nerve paralysis None reported Vitamin Health Benefit Deficiency Toxicity Water-Soluble Vitamins (continued) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid Activates liver-detoxifying systems Antioxidant to inactivate highly reactive oxygen species; protects against damage to lipids and other molecules Inhibits formation of carcinogenic compounds Protects cellular functions Enhances function of key white blood cells involved in the destruction of bacteria Protects vitamin E Integral to maintenance and building of collagen, a protein that holds the body's cells in ]
Expert answered|lyracorrea|Points 10|
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