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What are the functions, benefits, deficiency risks, and toxicity risks of water-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin Health Benefit Deficiency Toxicity Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin B-1 (thiamin) Vital for healthy nervous system and nerve transmission Essential in converting glucose to energy Disease is beriberi Symptoms of a deficiency include [ depression, irritability, attention deficit Severe deficiency leads to edema, paralysis, and heart failure No toxicity has been reported by those
taking large doses over prolonged periods of time Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) Essential for metabolizing carbohydrates, fats, and lipids and for the degradation of fatty acids and the synthesis of ATP Acts as an intermediary in the transfer of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions Necessary for the function of vitamins B-6, folic acid, and niacin Involved in formation of red blood cells and maintenance of body tissues, particularly the skin and eyes Symptoms are dry, scaly skin on face, oral swelling, and cracking at the corners of the mouth No evidence that high doses have toxic effects Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) Necessary for immune system function, hormone modulation, gluconeogenesis Essential in making certain amino acids and turning others into hormones Involved in metabolizing polyunsaturated fats and proteins Used to build red blood cells and maintain nerve tissue Formation of niacin Not common; symptoms include mouth sores, nausea, nervousness, anemia, convulsions High doses over prolonged periods are very toxic and can cause temporary or permanent nerve damage Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) Works with folic acid to produce red blood cells Helps build and maintain protective nerve sheaths Needed for RNA and DNA synthesis Pernicious anemia, muscle and nerve paralysis None reported Vitamin Health Benefit Deficiency Toxicity Water-Soluble Vitamins (continued) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid Activates liver-detoxifying systems Antioxidant to inactivate highly reactive oxygen species; protects against damage to lipids and other molecules Inhibits formation of carcinogenic compounds Protects cellular functions Enhances function of key white blood cells involved in the destruction of bacteria Protects vitamin E Integral to maintenance and building of collagen, a protein that holds the body's cells in ]
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What are some signs of B6 deficiency? What are some vitamin B6 food sources?
Weegy: 1. Lack of Energy Vitamin B6 helps supply your body with energy. It does this by working to your improve your metabolism. By doing this, it can help your body break down the protein that you eat and, as a result, produce energy quickly. [ If you notice that you are more tired than usual or you get fatigued quickly during exercise, you may have a vitamin B6 deficiency to blame. 2. A Decrease in Brain Function While trouble with brain function can be the result of any number of things, one of vitamin B6's jobs is to help you with certain brain functions. This helps your brain communicate with other parts of the body more efficiently. If you feel as though you may be suffering from decreased brain function for any reason, speak with your doctor immediately to see if it could be the result of vitamin B6 deficiency. 3. High Levels Of Homocysteine You will not be able to tell if you have high levels of the amino acid homocysteine in your body. But if you go to the doctor and find out that you do, it may be because you're suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency. High levels of homocysteine can cause heart attacks, but vitamin B6 helps to keep your levels low to reduce your risk. If they're high, you probably need to incorporate more vitamin B6 into your diet. vitamin B6 is a good amount of foods. So even if you're not taking a vitamin B6 supplement, there's a good chance you're getting a healthy amount from your normal diet. Foods like poultry, pork, nuts and beans contain high levels of vitamin B6. By eating these foods, you will prevent yourself from having vitamin B6 deficiency. Additionally, you will be able to enjoy many of the benefits of vitamin B6, including the energy that it brings and the improved brain function that it can provide. If you think you might be suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency, talk to your doctor today about what you can do to get more B6 in your diet. It could end up changing your life. ] (More)
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Asked 6/21/2013 12:05:28 PM
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What are some signs of B6 deficiency?
Weegy: 1. Lack of Energy Vitamin B6 helps supply your body with energy. It does this by working to your improve your metabolism. By doing this, it can help your body break down the protein that you eat and, as a result, produce energy quickly. [ If you notice that you are more tired than usual or you get fatigued quickly during exercise, you may have a vitamin B6 deficiency to blame. 2. A Decrease in Brain Function While trouble with brain function can be the result of any number of things, one of vitamin B6's jobs is to help you with certain brain functions. This helps your brain communicate with other parts of the body more efficiently. If you feel as though you may be suffering from decreased brain function for any reason, speak with your doctor immediately to see if it could be the result of vitamin B6 deficiency. 3. High Levels Of Homocysteine You will not be able to tell if you have high levels of the amino acid homocysteine in your body. But if you go to the doctor and find out that you do, it may be because you're suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency. High levels of homocysteine can cause heart attacks, but vitamin B6 helps to keep your levels low to reduce your risk. If they're high, you probably need to incorporate more vitamin B6 into your diet. ] User: What are some vitamin B6 food sources? (More)
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Asked 6/21/2013 12:08:31 PM
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what conditions in the body affect bioavailability?
Weegy: Metabolism in the intestine and liver affects the oral bioavailability as the first-pass effects after absorption. Also deviations of the metabolic activity in pharmacokinetic parameters due to the change in total body clearance of drugs. [ High clearance of drugs therefore, might be one of the risk factors for high variability in human BE study6. In short, the following physiological factors are known to affect bioavailability: These include the effect of gastrointestinal fluids such as pH, mucus, bile salts, complexing components. Gastric motility such as gastric emptying, presence of food, rest and exercise. Gastrointestinal transit time which can be affected by a large number of drugs. Absorption surface which the physiological integrity, area and blood flow. Metabolism of drugs by the gut wall, liver, skin and bronchial mucosa. The pharmacogenetic factors determining the rate of hepatic metabolism. Various disease states such as malabsorption, achlorhydria, thryrotoxicosis and celiac disease. Other factors include the gut flora, age, sex, weight and physical status of the patients. ] (More)
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Asked 6/21/2013 12:22:39 PM
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Lily, a 4-year-old Caucasian female, has she been complaining of being tired all the time. She is pale and is a picky eater. Her mother is a single mom with a small budget to feed a large family. Lily eats only pasta, breads, and hot dogs, and she drinks only artificial fruit punch. Lily has iron deficiency anemia.
Weegy: This is a case of iron deficiency anemia. Anemia is a condition that develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells. These cells are the main transporters of oxygen to organs. [ If red blood cells are also deficient in hemoglobin, then your body isn't getting enough oxygen. Symptoms of anemia - like fatigue - occur because organs aren't getting enough oxygen. (WebMD) Iron deficiency anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells, caused by a lack of sufficient iron. Alternative Names: Anemia - iron deficiency - children Causes, incidence, and risk factors, Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in blood. Iron is normally obtained in the diet and by the recycling of iron from old red blood cells. (Dr. Koop) Babies are born with about 500mg of iron in their bodies. By the time they reach adulthood they need to have accumulated about 5000mg. Children need to absorb an average of 1mg per day of iron to keep up with the needs of their growing bodies. Since children only absorb about 10% of the iron they eat, most children need to ingest 8-10mg of iron per day. Breast-fed babies need less, because iron is absorbed 3 times better when it is in breast milk. An iron deficient diet is a common cause of iron deficiency. Drinking too much cow's milk is a classic cause of iron deficiency in young children, because cows’ milk does not contain iron and inhibits absorption of iron. Iron deficiency may also result from blood loss in stool from a problem in the intestines. A common time for iron deficiency is between 9 and 24 months of age. All babies should have a screening test for iron deficiency at this age. Babies born prematurely may need to be tested earlier. The adolescent growth spurt is another high-risk period. Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will depend on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatments may include dietary changes and ... (More)
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Asked 6/21/2013 4:36:36 PM
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Davon is a 5-year-old African American male who has just moved to Chicago, and he is visiting his new pediatrician for a kindergarten physical. His mother tells the nurse that she carries the sickle cell trait and wants Davon screened for it. Davon may have the sickle cell trait.
Weegy: I would say that it would be hard to determine if Devon has a blood disorder because he has no symptoms. I do think that Devon is at risk of having sickle cell. Sickle cell is a disease that is inherited. [ African-Americans are at greater risk for the disease than any other ethnic group. Sickle cell is caused by genetic abnormality. It is diagnosed by a blood test. The blood test measures the amount of abnormal sickle hemoglobin. Sickle cell can be treated by medications such as pain medications, anti-inflammatory medications, and antibiotics for infection. ] (More)
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Asked 6/21/2013 5:06:41 PM
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