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Spearman's theory that all mental abilities draw from a single capacity
Factorial approach dominated the research of intelligence until 1960’s. The following models are examples of factorial models. [ Charles Spearman, in 1904, suggested that all individuals have a general intelligence factor called g, that individuals posses in varying amounts. His main idea was that an intelligent person is intelligent in all kind of tests for special abilities (like verbal or
mathematical processing) and less intelligent person is generally less intelligent in a similar way (Nolen-Hoeksema, Loftus, Wagenaar, 2009). Louis Leon Thurstone proposed theory in 1930’s that intelligence is composed of several different factors. The seven primary mental abilities in Thurstone's model were verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed and reasoning. Joy Paul Guilford continued Thurstone’s work and expanded the model of seven primary mental abilities to 150 different skills (Waterhouse, 2006). A new approach emerged with the development of cognitive psychology. The basic idea was to understand what intelligence is in terms of the cognitive processes that operate when we engage in intellectual activities (Sternberg & Kaufman, 1998). The information-processing approach strives to explain what mental processes are involved in the various tests of intelligence, how rapidly and accurately are these processes carried out and what types of mental representations of information do these processes act upon. In other words, intelligence was not explained in terms of factors but rather by identifying what are the mental processes that underlie intelligent behaviour. Individuals use different processes in different tasks, and the speed and accuracy of these processes vary. According to the cognitive approach the administrator of the intelligence test must use information-processing model to identify appropriate measures of the processes used in performing the task. ]
Expert answered|jeffreymcmillan|Points 610|
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Asked 303 days ago|9/29/2013 9:19:39 AM
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