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explain the relationship between mental health and tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse
In addition to examining the simple associations between mental health problems, drug use problems, and smoking, a number of demographic variables were examined, as well as a measure of personality, the neuroticism scale of the EPQ. [ These variables were considered in a multivariate analysis, in addition to other drug use, to examine the possibility that univariate patterns were simply due to
associated factors. Smoking was also related to a number of indicators of socioeconomic status. Those with less formal education were more likely to smoke, as were those who were unemployed, and had greater social disadvantage. Finally, those with higher levels of neuroticism (i.e. higher levels of moodiness, anxiety and irritability) were also more likely to be smokers. Smokers also reported significantly higher levels of psychological distress and disability due to emotional problems than non-smokers. These significant differences all remained even after the effects of demographic factors, neuroticism and other drug use were taken into account. These findings indicated that tobacco use is strongly related to mental health problems (as assessed with symptom measures or as mental disorders) and other substance use problems. These relationships persisted after accounting for a range of confounding variables. Research has found that mental health problems reduce the likelihood of quitting smoking. Hence, it appears that there is a need to further examine interventions for smokers with mental health and substance use problems. Furthermore, general practitioners and health professionals need to consider the possibility that smokers may have a number of other problems that will decrease their chances of successfully giving up smoking. ]
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