Within the discipline of psychology, there are several perspectives used to describe, predict, and explain human behavior. Describe three major psychological perspectives and name at least one leading theorist for each.
Psychology, the science of behavior and mental processes, has its roots in many disciplines and countries. Psychology's important issues include the relative contributions of biology and experience. [ Although the different perspectives on human nature have their own purposes and questions, they are complementary and together provide a fuller understanding of mind and behavior. Some
psychologists conduct basic or applied research; others provide professional services, including assessing and treating troubled people. With its perspectives ranging from the biological to the social, and settings from the clinic to the laboratory, psychology has become a meeting place for many disciplines.
The scientific attitude reflects an eagerness to skeptically scrutinize competing ideas with an open-minded humility before nature. This attitude, coupled with scientific principles for sifting reality from illusion, prepares us to think critically. Two reliable phenomena-hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence-illustrate the limits of everyday intuition and our need for scientific inquiry and critical thinking.
Psychologists construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses. Their research methods include case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation to describe behavior; correlation to assess the relationship between variables; and experimentation to uncover cause-effect relationships.
This chapter answers several questions that students commonly ask about psychology. These include concern over the laboratory's artificiality, the generalizability of research in terms of culture and gender, the purpose of animal studies, the adequacy of research ethics, and the potential misuse of psychology's knowledge.
Mastering psychology requires active study. ]
There are no new answers.