All of the following were a result of the Crusades except
A. establishment of a large Christian kingdom in the Middle East.
B. destruction of peaceful relations between Muslims and Christians.
C. increased hostility in Europe between Christians and Jews.
D. a proclamation, by Zangi, calling for Jihad against the infidels.
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D. destruction of peaceful relations between Muslims and Christians is not a result of the Crusades.
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