4. What is MBO? Why it is significant in management process? Can a manager be successful without following MBO concept? Also compare MBO with MBE.
Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do in the organization.
The term "management by objectives" was first [ popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book 'The Practice of Management'.
The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing course
of actions and decision making. An important part of the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the employee’s actual performance with the standards set. Ideally, when employees themselves have been involved with the goal setting and choosing the course of action to be followed by them, they are more likely to fulfill their responsibilities.
According to George S. Odiorne, the system of management by objectives can be described as a process whereby the superior and subordinate managers of an organization jointly identify its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him, and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members.
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