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5. What can be done to prevent mine drainage from damaging the ecosystem?
Acid mine drainage (AMD) causes environmental pollution that affects many countries having historic or current mining industries. [ Preventing the formation or the migration of AMD from its source is generally considered to be the preferable option, although this is not feasible in many locations, and in such cases, it is necessary to collect, treat, and discharge mine water. There are various
options available for remediating AMD, which may be divided into those that use either chemical or biological mechanisms to neutralise AMD and remove metals from solution. Both abiotic and biological systems include those that are classed as bactiveQ(i.e., require continuous inputs of resources to sustain the process) or bpassiveQ(i.e., require relatively little resource input once in operation). This review describes the current abiotic and bioremediative strategies that are currently used to mitigate AMD and compares the strengths and weaknesses of each. New and emerging technologies are also described. In addition, the factors that currently influence the selection of a remediation system, and how these criteria may change in the future, are discussed. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Acidic sulfur-rich wastewaters are the by-products of a variety of industrial operations such as galvanic processing and the scrubbing of flue gases at power plants (Johnson, 2000). The major producer of such effluents is, however, the mining industry. Waters draining active and, in particular, abandoned mines and mine wastes are often net acidic (sometimes extremely so). Such waters typically pose an additional risk to the environment by the fact that they often contain elevated concentrations of metals (iron, aluminium and manganese, and possibly other heavy metals) and metalloids (of which arsenic is generally of greatest concern). In 1989, it was estimated that ca. 19,300 km of streams and rivers, and ca. ]
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User: 5. What can be done to prevent mine drainage from damaging the ecosystem?

Weegy: Acid mine drainage (AMD) causes environmental pollution that affects many countries having historic or current mining industries. [ Preventing the formation or the migration of AMD from its source is generally considered to be the preferable option, although this is not feasible in many locations, and in such cases, it is necessary to collect, treat, and discharge mine water. There are various options available for remediating AMD, which may be divided into those that use either chemical or biological mechanisms to neutralise AMD and remove metals from solution. Both abiotic and biological systems include those that are classed as bactiveQ(i.e., require continuous inputs of resources to sustain the process) or bpassiveQ(i.e., require relatively little resource input once in operation). This review describes the current abiotic and bioremediative strategies that are currently used to mitigate AMD and compares the strengths and weaknesses of each. New and emerging technologies are also described. In addition, the factors that currently influence the selection of a remediation system, and how these criteria may change in the future, are discussed. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Acidic sulfur-rich wastewaters are the by-products of a variety of industrial operations such as galvanic processing and the scrubbing of flue gases at power plants (Johnson, 2000). The major producer of such effluents is, however, the mining industry. Waters draining active and, in particular, abandoned mines and mine wastes are often net acidic (sometimes extremely so). Such waters typically pose an additional risk to the environment by the fact that they often contain elevated concentrations of metals (iron, aluminium and manganese, and possibly other heavy metals) and metalloids (of which arsenic is generally of greatest concern). In 1989, it was estimated that ca. 19,300 km of streams and rivers, and ca. ]
marissa-sarol|Points 111|

User: what are the abiotic strategies to mitigate the AMD

Weegy: The northeastern region is considered to be the richest reservoir of genetic variability of large number of horticultural crops. Changes in weather parameters have profound impacts on the livelihood of people and their ecosystem as whole. [ These problems can be mitigated by the selection of suitable cultivars of fruits, vegetables and spices crops which have the potential to grow under diverse weather conditions. Protected cultivation of high-value vegetable crops like tomato, capsicum and cucumber provides means for round-the-year production with protection against low temperature and heavy rains. Drip irrigation is the most suitable system for efficient utilization of water especially for the horticultural crops. The appropriate techniques to overcome the impact of climate change are necessary to protect our biodiversity and for feeding the fast-growing population. Awareness and educational programmes for the growers, modification of present horticultural practices and greater use of greenhouse technology are some of the solutions to minimize the effect of climate change. ]
Expert answered|balongskypas|Points 60|

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5. What can be done to prevent mine drainage from damaging the ecosystem?
Weegy: Acid mine drainage (AMD) causes environmental pollution that affects many countries having historic or current mining industries. [ Preventing the formation or the migration of AMD from its source is generally considered to be the preferable option, although this is not feasible in many locations, and in such cases, it is necessary to collect, treat, and discharge mine water. There are various options available for remediating AMD, which may be divided into those that use either chemical or biological mechanisms to neutralise AMD and remove metals from solution. Both abiotic and biological systems include those that are classed as bactiveQ(i.e., require continuous inputs of resources to sustain the process) or bpassiveQ(i.e., require relatively little resource input once in operation). This review describes the current abiotic and bioremediative strategies that are currently used to mitigate AMD and compares the strengths and weaknesses of each. New and emerging technologies are also described. In addition, the factors that currently influence the selection of a remediation system, and how these criteria may change in the future, are discussed. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Acidic sulfur-rich wastewaters are the by-products of a variety of industrial operations such as galvanic processing and the scrubbing of flue gases at power plants (Johnson, 2000). The major producer of such effluents is, however, the mining industry. Waters draining active and, in particular, abandoned mines and mine wastes are often net acidic (sometimes extremely so). Such waters typically pose an additional risk to the environment by the fact that they often contain elevated concentrations of metals (iron, aluminium and manganese, and possibly other heavy metals) and metalloids (of which arsenic is generally of greatest concern). In 1989, it was estimated that ca. 19,300 km of streams and rivers, and ca. ] User: what are the side effects that metal iron cause to the ... (More)
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Asked 10/28/2013 8:51:51 PM
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WHAT ARE THE ABIOTIC PROCESS TOMITIGATE THE CONCENTRATION OF AMD IN THE ECOSYSTEMS
Weegy: Methods[edit] Lime neutralization[edit] By far, the most commonly used commercial process for treating acid mine drainage is lime precipitation in a high-density sludge (HDS) process. [ In this application, a slurry of lime is dispersed into a tank containing acid mine drainage and recycled sludge to increase water pH about ~9. At this pH, most toxic metals become insoluble and precipitate, aided by the presence of recycled sludge. Optionally, air may be introduced in this tank to oxidize iron and manganese and assist in their precipitation. The resulting slurry is directed to a sludge-settling vessel, such as a clarifier. In that vessel, clean water will overflow for release, whereas settled metal precipitates (sludge) will be recycled to the acid mine drainage treatment tank, with a sludge-wasting side stream. A number of variations of this process exist, as dictated by the chemistry of ARD, its volume, and other factors.[15] Generally, the products of the HDS process also contain gypsum and unreacted lime, which enhance both its settleability and resistance to re-acidification and metal mobilization. Less complex variants of this process, such as simple lime neutralization, may involve no more than a lime silo, mixing tank and settling pond. These systems are far less costly to build, but are also less efficient (i.e., longer reaction times are required, and they produce a discharge with higher trace metal concentrations, if present). They would be suitable for relatively small flows or less complex acid mine drainage.[16] Calcium silicate neutralization[edit] A calcium silicate feedstock, made from processed steel slag, can also be used to neutralize active acidity in AMD systems by removing free hydrogen ions from the bulk solution, thereby increasing pH. As the silicate anion captures H+ ions (raising the pH), it forms monosilicic acid (H4SiO4), a neutral solute. Monosilicic acid remains in the bulk solution to play many roles in correcting the ... (More)
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Asked 10/28/2013 11:58:13 PM
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what happens when you place pyrite in water?
Weegy: Pyrite is not resistant in the weathering environment. It fairly quickly breaks up in contact with oxygen and water. This reaction oxidizes the iron and releases sulfur as a sulfuric acid. [ This reaction has given pyrite a negative reputation as an environmentally very problematic mineral. ] (More)
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Asked 10/29/2013 6:44:25 PM
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