Discuss the terms that contribute to complications of the cardiovascular and circulatory system. Discuss why these factors cause such complications and what kinds of procedures are currently being used to correct such problems
There are two types of circulatory system problems, viz. congenital (present at birth) and acquired (developed after birth). [ Common circulatory system problems and diseases include the following.
Aortic aneurysm is bulging in the wall of the aorta, the largest artery of the body. It is caused due to aortic dissection (tear in the aortic wall) or defect in the aortic wall. A
rupture of the bulging may cause heavy bleeding or hemorrhage. Aortic aneurysm can be developed as a complication of other diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure.
Angina is pain or discomfort in the chest area, which is caused due to blockage in the blood vessels leading to the heart. The symptoms of angina are observed when there is insufficient supply of oxygen and blood to the heart muscles. Usually, chest pain lasts for about 10 minutes.
Arrhythmia is a heart problem, characterized by irregularity in the heart rhythm. Symptoms of this system may vary from very slow to fast heart rhythm. Arrhythmia can be a congenital or an acquired problem. In case of acquired arrhythmia, it can occur at any stage of life.
Atherosclerosis is hardening of the arterial wall (usually medium and large arteries) due to formation of plaque or atheroma. The plaque is composed of cholesterol, calcium, and fatty deposits. Atherosclerosis may hamper the blood circulation or at times, stops the blood flow. A person suffering from this problem experiences sharp pain in the affected area.
High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition, when the systolic pressure exceeds 140 mmHg and diastolic pressure exceeds 90 mmHg. It is mostly caused due to hereditary reasons or unhealthy lifestyle habits such as heavy drinking and smoking.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease is a disorder in the blood vessels that are not part of the brain and heart. This disease is caused due to fatty acid deposits in the arteries of the leg portion. ]
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