In 1–2 sentences, describe how you would copy and paste a formula.
When a formula is copied a relative address will change but an absolute address won't change. [ For mixed references, the part of the address that follows the $ does not change, but the other part will.
You use Absolute references when you want a cell reference to be permanent as the formula is copied, because you have a standard calculation that involves a fixed value. An example might be a
list of different prices that are all being multiplied by the same tax rate. You would put the tax rate into a cell, let's say cell B1. In B3 you want to multiply a value in A3 by the value in B1 and then copy the formula down so it multiplies a value in A4 by the value in B1 and then A5 by B1 and so on. The initial formula could be:
When it gets copied to the next cell below, it would become:
Then it would become:
So as you continue to copy it down, the $B$1 will not change because it is an absolute reference. The A3 becomes A4 and then A5 and so on because it is relative. The spreadsheet looks at the value in relation to where the formula has been copied to. In the first formula the A3 was one cell left of where the formula was. As it gets copied down, the A3 changes, but whichever formula you look at, the cell reference will be one cell left of the cell that the formula is in. So the formula in B10 would be have A10 in it, as A10 is one left of B10. In relation to the formula, the cell is always the same place from it, which is why it is called a relative reference. An absolute reference will never change, so it is absolutely the same no matter where you copy the formula.
Most formulas are either copied down or copied across. When you copy a formula down, the row part of the cell reference changes. Looking at the previous example, as the formula got copied down, A2 became A4 and then A5 and so on. The A is not changing, just the number of the row. So we could actually put the $B$1 in as B$1 and use that and our formula would still work, because like the A in the other cell reference, the B won't change. ]
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