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describe the different stages of a fever
Fever or pyrexia is an elevation in body temperatures, when cytokines causes the set point of the Hypothalamus Thermoregulatory Centre to be altered. [ . There four phases to a fever are: Prodomal, Chill, Flush and Diaphoresis. Prodomal: - The child feels unwell but the temperature is normal. This is the stage where exogenous and endogenous pyrogens are acting to reset the hypothalamic set
point. Chill: - The child is cold and shivering and the body temperature is increasing. The body thermostat is set at 39 degrees Celsius but the blood is still at 37 degrees C. The hypothalamus detects a difference and initiates heat generating mechanism until the blood temperature reaches the new set point.mechanism. Flush: In this stage, cutaneous vasodilation occurs, the skin becomes warm and flushed and dry and the temperature is elevated. The temperature reaches the new set point. It will remain elevated until a new set point is determined by removal of pyrogens (e.g destruction of bacteria by antibiotics, in Bob’s case amoxillin (40-45 mg /kg). Diaphoresis: The hypothalamus set point drops. The child is flushed and feels hot, the temperature is falling. The hypothalamus detects the blood as being too hot and initiates heat loss. This is the stage of febrile response marked by sweating. Diaphoresis assists in evaporative heat loss. When the fever breaks, the client becomes ‘Afebrile”. Patterns of fever Sustained: A constant body temperature continuously above 38 degrees C. and does not fluctuate. Intermittent: Fever spikes accompanied by usual temperature levels in between. Temperature returns to acceptable value at least once in 24 hours. Remittent: Fever spikes and falls but not returning to normal temperature levels. Relapsing: Periods of febrile episodes accompanied by acceptable temperature values. Febrile episodes and periods of normal temperature (Normothermia) may be longer than 24 hours. ]
Expert answered|Shey091808|Points 808|
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