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: List the differences between cranial and spinal nerves
The basic difference between the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves is the role they play, in helping our bodies to function properly. [ The body has what is called a peripheral nervous system consisting of more than 100 billion nerve cells, which run all throughout our body, making connections with our brain, as well as other parts of the body, and sometimes with each other. The peripheral
nervous system is composed of two systems the somatic and autonomic nervous system. These nerves connect with both the brain and the spinal cord. Our muscles are controlled by voluntary and sensory receptors in the skin, this is an example of the somatic system. The autonomic system connects the brain stem and the spinal cord to the internal organs, and also regulates the body processes, like heart rate and blood pressure, stomach acid, and the speed of food travelling through our digestive systems. The autonomic nervous system is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Each has a job to do within the body. The sympathetic division helps us to deal with stressful or emergency situations. They help us to know, when to fight and when to take flight. The parasympathetic division helps the body to function, in normal situations. Both divisions regulate our pulse, breathing and blood pressure to keep them stable. The cranial nerves connect our brain to our eyes, ears, nose, throat and other parts of our head, neck and trunk. There are twelve (12) pairs of cranial nerves. The nerves, which connect the spinal cord to with other parts of the body are called spinal nerves. The brain communicates or connects with other parts of the body through the spinal nerves. We have thirty-one (31) pairs of spinal nerves. Spinal nerves and cranial nerves are connected with the somatic and the autonomic parts of the peripheral nervous system. Some nerves are sensory nerves and other nerves are motor nerves, depending upon their function within the body. Read more: ]
Expert answered|vanilla2bean|Points 185|
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Multiple sclerosis is often associated with a decrease in these neuroglia. (Points : 2) astrocytes Schwann cells oligodendrocytes microglia
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Asked 5/31/2012 7:03:09 PM
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Multiple sclerosis is often associated with a decrease in these neuroglia. (Points : 2) astrocytes Schwann cells oligodendrocytes microglia
Weegy: The answer is "oligodendrocytes" (More)
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Asked 5/31/2012 7:10:34 PM
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The virus polio causes loss of motor function but not of sensory function, because it infects neurons. The neurons are located in the _____________ horn of th spinal cord.
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Asked 5/31/2012 7:16:34 PM
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List the steps in chemical synaptic transmission.
Weegy: The process by which this information is communicated is called synaptic transmission and can be broken down into four steps. [ First, the neurotransmitter must be synthesized and stored in vesicles so that when an action potential arrives at the nerve ending, the cell is ready to pass it along to the next neuron. Next, when an action potential does arrive at the terminal, the neurotransmitter must be quickly and efficiently released from the terminal and into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter must then be recognized by selective receptors on the postsynaptic cell so that it can pass along the signal and initiate another action potential. Or, in some cases, the receptors act to block the signals of other neurons also connecting to that postsynaptic neuron. After its recognition by the receptor, the neurotransmitter must be inactivated so that it does not continually occupy the receptor sites of the postsynaptic cell. Inactivation of the neurotransmitter avoids constant stimulation of the postsynaptic cell, while at the same time freeing up the receptor sites so that they can receive additional neurotransmitter molecules, should another action potential arrive. ] (More)
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Asked 5/31/2012 7:21:54 PM
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List the types of neuroglia and their functions.
Weegy: - Astrocytes, known for the many processes attached to their cell body, provide structural support and their processes often have 'end feet' that abut the basal lamina around the capillary endothelium or line the exterior surface of the CNS, [ where they contribute to the pial-glial external limiting membrane. Cell bodies of astrocytes are among the largest for the glia, but only overlap the lower end for size of neurons. - Oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around axons in the CNS. One oligodendrocyte can form myelin sheaths along more than one internode of more than one axon. They have smaller cell bodies than astrocytes and relatively fewer processes leaving the cell body. The electron micrograph shows the cell body of an oligodendrocyte. Its nucleus is at the upper right and processes extend around myelinated fibers toward the lower left. The relatively electron dense cytoplasm is characteristic. - Microglia are the main phagocytic cell and antigen-presenting cells in the CNS. They have the smallest cell bodies among the neuroglia. There are at least two other cells in the adult mammalian CNS that could be considered 'glial-like cells' - Ependymal cells line most of the ventricular system of the CNS, which is an inner space or lumen. At least seven of them with nuclei are evident in this electron micrograph of spinal cord. The lumen/central canal is at upper right. - Choroidal cells form the inner layer of the choroid plexus which abuts the ventricular system at certain places in the brain. These cells secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles.The phrase 'neuroglial-like' is also used to account for cells found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that are not neurons and that have functions similar to the classically described neuroglia. - Schwann cells form myelin (one Schwann cell/internode/axon) in the PNS. In the photomicrograph, their nuclei are the dark, cigar-shaped structures among the myelinated fibers that occupy the center ... (More)
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