what is the impact of risk behavior on the
substance abuse:tobacco on
and ethical sphere?
Smoking bears similarities to other high-risk behaviors. Tobacco dependence and threat of physical withdrawal, for example, help to maintain smoking behaviors much like other substance abuse and dependence disorders. [ [ Smoking behavior is often conditioned and linked to activities of daily life and habits and is sometimes used as a way to cope with psychological stress, as are eating habits
and dietary patterns. Many of the same methods used to address smoking have been used to prompt behavioral change, both addressing physical and psychological aspects of the high-risk behaviors while taking into account a patient?s readiness to change (e.g., using motivational interviewing). One of the greatest risks of smoking is the increased risk of death and morbidity from macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. Patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, compared to patients without diabetes, are already at increased risk for morbidity and mortality related to circulatory and cardiovascular disease. Mortality due to cardiovascular disease is greatly increased among smokers with diabetes. The risk for cardiovascular disease among smokers with diabetes is up to 14 times higher than that for smoking or diabetes alone. ]
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