The rule of the Byzantine emperor Justinian differed from the rule of monarchs in Western Europe in that
The Byzantine Empire (or Byzantium) was the Eastern Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centered on the capital of Constantinople. [ Known simply as the "Roman Empire" (Greek: ?as??e?a ??µa???, Basileia Rhomaion; Latin: Imperium Romanum) or Romania (??µa??a) to its inhabitants and neighbours, it was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State and maintained Roman
state traditions. Byzantium is today distinguished from ancient Rome proper insofar as it was oriented towards Greek culture, characterised by Christianity rather than Roman polytheism and was predominantly Greek-speaking rather than Latin-speaking.
As the distinction between Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire is largely a modern convention, it is not possible to assign a date of separation; however, important points are the Roman Empire's administrative division into western and eastern halves in 285 by Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305), and Emperor Constantine I's (r. 306–337) decision in 324 to transfer the capital from Nicomedia (in Asia Minor) to Byzantium on the Bosphorus, which became Constantinople, "City of Constantine" (alternatively "New Rome").[n 1] The Roman Empire was finally divided in 395 AD after the death of Emperor Theodosius I (r. 379–395), thus this date is also very important if the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) is looked upon as completely separated from the West. The transition to Byzantine history proper finally begins during the reign of Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), since Heraclius effectively established a new state after reforming the army and administration by introducing themes and by changing the official language of the Empire from Latin to Greek.
As the Western Roman Empire decayed and fragmented into numerous separate kingdoms, the Byzantine Empire continued to survive, existing for more than a thousand years from its genesis in the 4th century until its final conquest in 1453. ]
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