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Q: What are some examples of masculinity and femininity in society and the media?
A: Femininity and Masculinity as Social Constructions : A number of scholars have described how social norms around gender and heterosexuality may powerfully influence one?s sense of self (Butler, 1990; Coates, 1996; Kimmel, 2000; Messner, 1997, [ [ 2001; Mills, 1997; Smith, 1990). Some studies look specifically at the dominant expectations of femininity in Western society and the ways in which it
contributes to women?s subjective sense of self?the ways in which women experience and act upon their bodies (Bartky, 1988; Brumberg, 1997; Smith, 1990). Researchers have examined how a dominant discourse of femininity shapes use of cosmetics, eating disorders, perceptions of menstruation, exercise, dress and adornment. These are examples of what Bartky (1988) describes as ?part of the process by which the ideal body of femininity?and hence the feminine body subject?is constructed; in doing this, they produce. . .a body on which an inferior status has been inscribed?.............Both Kivel (1999) and Katz & Earp (1999) contend that the ways in which masculinity is currently conceptualized creates environments where boys/men are more likely to learn be aggressive and sometimes violent. William Pollack also describes the confines of masculinity in his highly acclaimed book Real Boys (1998). According to Pollack, ?Studies show that boys at a very early age are pushed to suppress their vulnerable and sad feelings, they also demonstrate that boys are pressured to express the one strong feeling allowed them?anger (p. 44). He draws on the term ?emotional funnel? to describe what unfortunately happens for most boys when anger becomes ?the final common pathway?to express their vulnerability and powerlessness (p. 44). Importantly, these experts point out that aggressive and even violent behavior is more likely to be tolerated and/or excused precisely because gender norms are so powerful and pervasive that they are rarely questioned (Katz & Earp, 1999; Kimmel, 2001; Kivel, 1999; Pollack, 1998). ........... ]
scijoe21|Points 1565|
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Asked 6/3/2012 2:43:00 PM
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