What is the difference between errors affecting truth and errors affective validity?
Errors that affect validity are much harder to discern unless you are privvy to the inside information of EVERYTHING that went on in the process.
If I conduct a study and report that of 15,000 people contacted, the King's approval rate is at 100%, [ that is the TRUTH of the matter. HOWEVER, if you dig into it, I may have only contacted the 15,000 members of the King's family and closest
supporters from his home town, which calls the validity into account.
Another validity error is when you draw a correlation when there isn't one. If you push 10,000 people off a cliff, and when they are 3' from the bottom you snap them in the butt with a rubber band, you note that 100% of them died. A validity error would be to say that if you snap a person in the butt with a rubber band, they will die because of the correlation shown in your study. There may be a relationship (all the dead bodies had a tiny bruise on their butt), but it isn't a cause/effect correlation.
Truth errors are like when a bill goes before Congress that will give lots of money to blind nuns and orphans - AND make it legal to gouge out people's eye on the street. A political advert will say, "My opponent voted to deny nuns and orphans the money they need!!!" which is a truth error. Yes, he may have voted against it - but to prevent people from losing eyeballs. Don't laugh at this example - it happens ALL the time in the US!! ]
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