what was the foundation for the indus valley civilization
From the best available evidence it seems likely that the Indus civilization was a somewhat informal grouping of culturally and commercially connected and related city states, perhaps something like ancient Greece before Alexander the Great, [ or the merchant cities of Renaissance Italy. We can only guess since we know hardly anthing about the internal workings of this civilization. We do not
even know, for example, how the two biggest cities - Mohenjo Daro in the south and Harappa in the north - got along with each other, nor what role the many medium and smaller cities played. We do not know how the "empire" was organised and ruled nor ewhat role religion played in it. There is no trace of a single ruler but it is possible that one or the other major city or one or the other local ruling family was at times richer and more dominant than the others . But none may have been strong enough to establish its local capital or ruler as the sole capital or ruler of the realm. Until we can decipher the Indus Script (if it is indeed a system of writing - not even that is certain) we will never know. Some researchers have decided for no very clear reason to call the entire Indus civilization "Harappa". We prefer the more general term "Indus civilization" when not referring specifically to the city of Harappa.
The Indus civilization must have had a long and complex internal history to which archaeology remains today the only key. Archaeology produces layers and sequences and dates but very seldom tells us what the humans who "produced" the archaeology thought and felt and aimed for. There must havee been other similar and as yet undiscovered settlements along the Indus valley that would later provide the foundation for the rise of the first civilization in the area, the Indus civilization. ]
There are no new answers.