Biologists have organized their areas of study into ten main themes. Please list and describe all ten of these main themes. (0.5 points each) Also, provide a specific example explaining what a biologist might study or research for each of these ten main themes. (0.5 points each)
Ten Themes in the Study of Life:
1. Each level of biological organization has emergent properties.
2. Cells are the basic unit for both structure and function.
3. DNA is the genetic material and is the heritable information.
4. [ Structure and Function are related at all levels of organization.
5. Open systems: A way of sensing and responding to specific changes in the environment.
6. A way of
capturing and using energy and materials (regulation of biochemical reactions)
7. Unity and Diversity.
8. Evolution is the central theme of biology.
9. Science is a process of inquiry (the scientific method).
10. Science and technology are functions of society,
Each level of biological organization has emergent properties Emergent property = Property that emerges from interactions that occur due to increasing organization. With each step upward in the biological hierarchy, new properties emerge that were not present at the simpler organizational levels. Life is difficult to define because it is associated with numerous emergent properties that reflect a hierarchy of structural organization. Some of the emergent properties and processes associated with life are: Complex. Organisms are highly ordered, and other characteristics of life emerge from this complex organization. Reproduction. Organisms reproduce; life comes only from life (biogenesis). Growth and Development. Heritable programs stored in DNA direct the species-specific pattern of growth and development. Energy Transformation. Organisms take in and transform energy to do work, including the maintenance of their ordered state.
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