What is diversity in the sense of self and social development? How do you think it influences a person's positive social-developmental outcomes such as trust, moral development, and social competence?
sense of self includes both their beliefs about who they are as people (self-concept) and their judgments and feelings about their value and worth (self-esteem, self-worth). [ Most children tend to interpret events in ways that allow them to maintain a positive self-image. Realistic self-perceptions, or perhaps self-perceptions that are just slightly inflated, are optimal, in that they
encourage children to set their sights on potentially achievable challenges.
To a considerable degree, children's sense of self is based on their own prior successes and failures. Yet other people also play a role, either by treating children in ways that communicate high or low regard, or (in the case of peers) by demonstrating the kinds of things children "should" be able to do at a certain age. Membership in various groups (e.g., athletic teams, ethnic groups) also has an impact, as do gender, physical appearance, disabilities, and other inherited characteristics.
With age, children construct increasingly complex and multifaceted understandings of who they are as people. In the early years, their self-perceptions are fairly simplistic, concrete, and categorical (e.g., "I have brown eyes," "I'm a boy"). But as they acquire the capacity for abstract thought, their self-descriptions increasingly include general, abstract qualities (e.g., "thoughtful," "dependable"). In adolescence they also begin to wrestle with who they ultimately want to become as human beings.
As children grow older, they become increasing attuned to and interested in the mental lives of those around them. In the process of developing a theory of mind, they gradually learn that people have thoughts, feelings, and motives different from their own and that these thoughts, feelings, and motives can be complex and at times contradictory. They also become increasingly skilled in taking the perspectives of others: They can imagine how other people must think and feel and begin to empathize with those who are suffering or in need.
To some degree, social cognition encompasses elements of cognition more generally. ]
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