Question and answer
A somewhat frial 76-year-old female visits, her physician's office for an annual checkup. Her social history shows she smokes a pack of cigarettes a day and she is a heavy coffee drinker. She has
had several fractured bones in the last fiv year that required medical attention. During initial examination measurements show that the patient has lost approximately an inch of height over the past year. She has also lost several pounds but states she still wears the same size clothes. Describe the bone changes in this condition on a macro and cellular level?
The underlying mechanism in all cases of osteoporosis is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. [ In normal bone, there is constant matrix remodeling of bone; up to 10% of all bone mass may be undergoing remodeling at any point in time. The process takes place in bone multicellular units (BMUs) as first described by Frost in 1963.[43] Bone is resorbed by osteoclast cells (which
derive from the bone marrow), after which new bone is deposited by osteoblast cells.[9] The three main mechanisms by which osteoporosis develops are an inadequate peak bone mass (the skeleton develops insufficient mass and strength during growth), excessive bone resorption, and inadequate formation of new bone during remodeling. An interplay of these three mechanisms underlies the development of fragile bone tissue.[9] Hormonal factors strongly determine the rate of bone resorption; lack of estrogen (e.g. as a result of menopause) increases bone resorption as well as decreasing the deposition of new bone that normally takes place in weight-bearing bones. The amount of estrogen needed to suppress this process is lower than that normally needed to stimulate the uterus and breast gland. The a-form of the estrogen receptor appears to be the most important in regulating bone turnover.[9] In addition to estrogen, calcium metabolism plays a significant role in bone turnover, and deficiency of calcium and vitamin D leads to impaired bone deposition; in addition, the parathyroid glands react to low calcium levels by secreting parathyroid hormone (parathormone, PTH), which increases bone resorption to ensure sufficient calcium in the blood. The role of calcitonin, a hormone generated by the thyroid that increases bone deposition, is less clear and probably not as significant as that of PTH.[9] Osteoblasts, several displaying a prominent Golgi apparatus, actively synthesizing osteoid containing two osteocytes. The activation of osteoclasts is regulated by various molecular signals, of which RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor ?B ligand) is one of best studied. ]
Expert answered|emem0910|Points 189|
Question
Asked 5/10/2012 11:04:13 PM
0 Answers/Comments
Get an answer
New answers
Rating

There are no new answers.

Comments

There are no comments.

Add an answer or comment
Log in or sign up first.
Questions asked by the same visitor
t is definitely harder and more expensive to eat healthy, that is for sure. What kinds of foods would you suggest to this group that are healthy but maybe more accessible if they are at a financial disadvantage?
Weegy: Many beans are a good source of nutrition whilst being cheap to obtain. [ Fresh fruit may be harder to consume due to higher prices however everyday fruits such as apples, oranges and banana's are relatively cheap in comparison and are a good source of vitamins and minerals. Frozen vegetables are cheap and easy addition to majority of meals. The following link has a list of healthy foods that are cheaper to purchase and ways in which you can use them. ] (More)
Question
Expert Answered
Asked 5/6/2012 2:45:08 PM
0 Answers/Comments
t is definitely harder and more expensive to eat healthy, that is for sure. What kinds of foods would you suggest to this group that are healthy but maybe more accessible if they are at a financial disadvantage?
Weegy: I'm actually in the same situation as the one you've described. I've found a helpful article, and it includes healthy but budget friendly foods. One good one is oats, whether traditional or instant, oatmeal is very healthy for you. [ Another good one is the banana. You could have a banana every day for a week for less than a dollar! ] (More)
Question
Expert Answered
Asked 5/6/2012 2:41:29 PM
0 Answers/Comments
discuss the importance of monitoring the content of your social media pages. How can social media websites affect your job search? From an employer's point of view, do you agree with searching potential employees' social media websites for information?
Weegy: It is important to set you privacy settings so only the people you want to see your personal information can see it. That is not fool proof though and people really need to think twice about what they put online. [ If it is not something they would want plastered on a billboard then it shouldn't be on their social networking page. Social media websites are public and anybody has a right to look at anybody else's page, including potential employers, so it is up to the person posting their personal information to be careful what they post and set their privacy settings accordingly. ] (More)
Question
Expert Answered
Asked 5/4/2012 3:24:47 PM
0 Answers/Comments
What are your best study hints and ideas that you can share in Algebra?
Weegy: flash cards, group studying, copying notes over, and manipulating equations to make sure you understand how it works. (More)
Question
Expert Answered
Asked 5/4/2012 3:17:40 PM
0 Answers/Comments
What are your best study hints and ideas that you can share in Algebra?
Weegy: make flash cards! (More)
Question
Expert Answered
Asked 5/4/2012 3:13:47 PM
0 Answers/Comments
25,314,625 questions answered
Popular Conversations
Which of the following technologies was NOT created during World War ...
Weegy: B. antibiotics User: How did neighboring Arab nations respond to the Israeli declaration of ...
5/23/2016 7:05:36 AM| 3 Answers
What opened relations between China and the United States? A. the ...
Weegy: The Sino-Soviet split opened relations between China and the United States. User: Which of the following ...
5/23/2016 7:26:58 AM| 2 Answers
28) A(n) __________ sells general merchandise directly from the ...
Weegy: A(n) __________ sells general merchandise directly from the manufacturer at a discount; items may be ...
5/23/2016 12:46:13 PM| 2 Answers
The _____ is a measure of the average change in prices of a market ...
Weegy: The consumer price index is a measure of the average change in prices of a market basket of goods and services. ...
5/23/2016 2:22:28 PM| 2 Answers
Weegy Stuff
S
Points 606 [Total 606] Ratings 9 Comments 496 Invitations 2 Offline
S
Points 580 [Total 580] Ratings 10 Comments 480 Invitations 0 Offline
S
Points 510 [Total 510] Ratings 0 Comments 510 Invitations 0 Online
S
1
L
L
P
R
P
L
P
P
R
Points 272 [Total 12524] Ratings 2 Comments 252 Invitations 0 Online
S
L
P
P
P
Points 166 [Total 3543] Ratings 0 Comments 166 Invitations 0 Offline
S
Points 38 [Total 107] Ratings 0 Comments 38 Invitations 0 Offline
S
Points 12 [Total 12] Ratings 1 Comments 2 Invitations 0 Offline
S
Points 10 [Total 10] Ratings 1 Comments 0 Invitations 0 Offline
S
L
Points 2 [Total 1756] Ratings 0 Comments 2 Invitations 0 Offline
S
Points 2 [Total 49] Ratings 0 Comments 2 Invitations 0 Offline
* Excludes moderators and previous
winners (Include)
Home | Contact | Blog | About | Terms | Privacy | © Purple Inc.