How are fallacies used in visual, written, and oral arguments?
Assumptions and Fallacies
An assumption is something we take for granted or presuppose, usually it is something we previously learned and do not question. It is part of our system of beliefs. [ We assume our beliefs to be true and use them to interpret the world around us.
Assumptions interfere with critical thinking because we not stop to think about the issue. We let our assumptions take
control instead of stopping and looking at the situation to determine the truth about the situation, for example, as our reading states, two people see a man lying in a gutter. One person might infer, “There’s a drunken bum”. The other person might infer, “There is a man in need of help”. Although the man may be a drunken bum lying in the gutter, a person should take the time to realize he is also a man in need of help and help him out of the gutter.
In order to avoid making assumptions in your thinking, you must gain control of your thinking. We must identify inferences and assumptions in order to see what inferences are illogical when the assumptions that lead to them are not justifiable. Once you become skilled in identifying the inferences and assumptions you are in a better position to question the extent to which any of your assumptions are justified. The key is recognizing and questioning our inferences and assumptions.
Fallacies are defined as deception, guile, trickery, the aptness to mislead, a deceptive or misleading argument or an error. Fallacies can be considered as defects that weaken your argument (Fallacies, 2010-2012). Fallacies are used in written, oral and visual arguments by using different approaches to sway your way of thinking one way or the other. There are at least 16 “dirty tricks” that can be used in written, oral or visual arguments that a person will use to persuade the public toward their way of thinking. These tricks are: Accuse... ]
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