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Q: How is information stored into your long-term memory and how does information stored in your long-term memory affect your critical thinking skills?
A: Long-term memory, the last part of our information-processing model, is truly remarkable in what it allows us to recall. [ When we compare long-term memory to sensory or working memory (both of which are relatively short-term), we find that it is just what its name implies, long term. The information stored in long-term memory is relatively permanent but not always accurate. The capacity of our
long-term memories is unknown but is considered to be extremely large?by some estimates containing a million billion connections. In this chapter we will look at the processes that allow our brain to store and retrieve information over time and the factors that influence the strength of these memories. It is a fascinating journey into the unconscious depths of human memory and one that has powerful implications for teaching and learning.Procedural memory is knowing how versus knowing what. It is sometimes called nondeclarative: You do not need to ?declare? anything, and you may not be able to say much about what you are doing, for the information to be stored. The first type of procedural memory is your ability to store automatic processes for routine actions. You can think of these processes as skills, the ?how? to do things. They may be simple procedures, such as walking, brushing your teeth, or tying your shoes, or they may be more complex, such as driving a car or decoding words. These procedures have in common their automatic nature. After a good deal of repetition and practice, we perform them without conscious thought. The famous cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner called procedural memory a memory without record (Squire & Kandel, 2000). The automatic procedures form a sort of unconscious stimulus-response bond. Once we have a skill or habit at this level, however, it becomes difficult to access it in any way except by performing it. Imagine trying to teach someone to tie a shoe, swing a golf club, or write a word without physically demonstrating it. We no longer know how we accomplish the procedure. ]
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Asked 1/22/2011 5:03:02 AM
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